Numerical simulation of wind farms. Operation of wind turbines under power restrictions imposed by the electric grid
Andrés Guggeri
Master thesis from Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ingeniería. IIE - Feb. 2019
Advisor: Martín Draper
Co-advisor: Gabriel Usera
Research Group(s): (unspecified)
Department(s): Potencia
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This thesis deals with the operation and power production of wind farms, focusing on active power control of wind turbines. This work is carried out by means of numerical simulations with a Computational Fluid Mechanics approach. The wind field dynamics equations are solved using the numeric code caffa3d, with a Large Eddy Simulation framework and the Actuator Line Model to represent the wind turbine rotors. A torque-generator controller and closed-loop Proportional-Integral collective pitch controller were implemented in caffa3d code, with the purpose of following an active power signal determined by the operator. These models enable to simulate the operation of wind turbines subject to the entire range of wind velocity and contributes to reproduce in a more precise way the real behavior of the turbine, allowing to find both qualitative and quantitative results of the interaction between the wind flow and the turbines.To validate the simulations, the results were compared with experimental data of the wind field and the operation of wind turbines, obtained from two sources: the 7.7MW onshore wind farm, 'Libertad', located in Uruguay; and a wind tunnel campaign of a wind farm. The results obtained in the simulations are consistent with the experimental ones, so the state of the art is considered to be reached in order to simulate the operation of turbines and their power control at individual level. The comparison was focused in integral quantities, in particular active power, as well as in the rotor angular velocity, bladepitch angle and wind speed. Simulations of different wind speed and direction situations were carried out, also considering different signals of active power, evaluating the characteristics of the wakes, the operation of the turbines and the total production of the wind farm.

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